The cannabis policy landscape is rapidly changing. In Canada, legalization of cannabis for recreational use is forthcoming, and medical use of cannabis has been available since 2001. In the USA, 28 states have legalized medical cannabis use, and by 2017 eight states plus the District of Columbia had legalized recreational use.
Use of cannabis has grown among both women and men, and perceptions of risk have decreased. There is also evidence that the gender gap in cannabis use is narrowing among adolescents. Given changes in legislation and the increasing popularity of cannabis, there is need for continued research on how women and men and girls and boys are differentially impacted by policies, as well as sex and gender differences in patterns and effects of use.